Palynology dating techniques conflict dating
Documentary data To get a more convincing assessment of a statement such as a regular occurrence of Frost Fairs on the River Thames we need sources that include records of frost dates, droughts, famine, the freezing of lakes, ponds and rivers, duration of snow and sea ice cover, and the dates of flowering of plants.
Combined, these historical records can provide insight into past climate conditions.
The age of the Rhynie chert and it's associated sediments has been calculated by combining two analytical methods: absolute dating and biostratigraphy.
Absolute dates for rocks are calculated by examining radioactive isotopes of certain elements in a mineral that take millions of years to 'decay' to a more stable isotope.
If the length of time it takes for an isotope to decay to another stable form is known, and also the amount of radioactive isotope that remains in the mineral, then the age of that mineral can be calculated.
The other method is “Relative Dating” which gives an order of events without giving an exact age (1): typically artefact typology or the study of the sequence of the evolution of fossils.in igneous rocks), then the age of the rock will be the same as that of the mineral.